EU

WP9 IMPACT ASSESSMENT
(RTD)

PROJECT DELIVERABLES AND DISSEMINATION

D9.1 Environmental impact scoping studymore info

LEAD PARTNER:

IT Power

NATURE: REPORT

DISSEMINATION: PUBLIC

SCHEDULED: DEC/2012

ACHIEVED: JUN/2013

This document is intended for distribution to consenting and licencing agencies as a recommendation of the work required to complete an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and produce an Environmental Statement. The relevant European Directives that apply to the project are detailed and the ensuing national policies and/or legislation at each of the three proposed sites are identified.There is a general requirement for more site specific data, as the information in the baseline has predominantly been sourced from reports at a European level rather than dedicated local studies. It is also noted that research into the environmental impacts of hydrogen generation offshore is limited and therefore a general recommendation is made for further study into this aspect of the project. A recommendation is also made for further research into the EIA licensing and consenting process for projects in Sardinia.

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Version: vfinal - Pages: 94

D9.2 Meso and microscale hydrodynamic models of 3 locationsmore info

NATURE: OTHER

DISSEMINATION: RESTRICTED

SCHEDULED: DEC/2013

ACHIEVED: MAY/2014

The purpose of this document is to describe and present the findings of the hydrodynamic modelling work of the dispersion of the high salinity brine – a product of the desalination unit. The determination of outflow salinity from a desalination plant to open ocean is complex and dynamic. Moreover the weather conditions (sea waves, current and direction, wind velocity and direction) can vary significantly depending on the season, time of the day. Due to all these complexities and random events, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and other deterministic approaches cannot be directly used to model the entirety of the problem. In addition, in case of slow dispersion process and high brine flowrate from the plant, high salinity seawater could potentially travel large distances, and scales that could be unfeasible to simulate with traditional CFD codes that require high grid density. For this reason there were two approaches followed:

• a mesoscale model which describes stochastically the process of dispersion

• a microscale model using CFD codes

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Version: RESTRICTED - Pages: RESTRICTED

D9.3 Environmental recommendations for installation of platforms...more info

LEAD PARTNER:

Chlamys

NATURE: REPORT

DISSEMINATION: PUBLIC

SCHEDULED: JUL/2013

ACHIEVED: SEP/2014

The final conceptual development of the H2OCEAN system has drawn a scenario composed by an array of up to 100 coupled wave and wind energy devices, aquaculture cages, with the support of 2 FPSO ships and a network of submerged power cables, all of them installed over a high energy site located at 12 miles off the Atlantic coast of Portugal. The complexity of the system, the off-shore operational environment and the depth of deployment of the devices give rise to several environmental concerns related to the installation techniques and technological solution to be used to couple the reliability of the system with a sustainable use of the marine resources. This paper analyses the likely impacts on the marine environment identifying some possible pressures and receptors, taking into account the issues reported for the OSPAR area IV and all the concerns ruled by the EC Directives on Water, Habitat, Birds, in addition to the conservational status of the sensitive marine organisms. This paper deals with the pressure exerted by the foreseen installation activities in terms of physical and chemical outputs (noise, contamination, saline brines, and electro-magnetic fields) on the components of the marine ecosystem likely to be encountered in the area. Each group of receptors is considered separately, and a list of recommendations is proposed at each chapter’s end.

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Version: vfinal - Pages: 54

D9.4 Report on concentration of wastes and their dilution...more info

LEAD PARTNER:

Chlamys

NATURE: REPORT

DISSEMINATION: PUBLIC

SCHEDULED: SEP/2014

ACHIEVED: JUN/2014

The release of either dissolved and particulate matters by the fish farm included in the offshore H2OCEAN installation has been discussed. The chosen modeling software, AquaModel, couples together a hydrodynamic model with a tracking routine of the particles released by the fish farm. These are then addressed to the water column and the benthos, where they encounter metabolic transformation or burial. The designed farm is able to release a huge amount of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen, visible at a scale of dozen of km. The peculiar hydrodynamic features of the site are capable to disperse the plume quickly, before any visible eutrophication effects can take place. The bottom is the depositional domain of organic particles below 1mm in size, and even if re-suspension episodes can be forecasted, a slight enrichment in Carbon can be forecasted for large bottom areas. As derived from other Deliverables, brines released by the Desalination Unit are not appearing as a major concern. The present spatial simulation has given evidence of some additional pressure at a mesoscale range in addition to the alteration of normal ecological conditions caused by the designed farming activity. In conclusion, while the pressure exerted by the H2Ocean installation on marine ecosystem on a scale of dozens of Kilometres appear to be not relevant, the deposition of brines should be carefully avoided at least close to the farm, where it could contribute to modify the benthic community and its metabolism, enhancing the adverse effects of the large amount of organic matter released by the farming activity and addressed to the bottom.

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Version: vfinal - Pages: 69

D9.5 Analysis of the Reduced Environmental Impact of the Proposed...more info

LEAD PARTNER:

Chlamys

NATURE: REPORT

DISSEMINATION: PUBLIC

SCHEDULED: APR/2014

ACHIEVED: JUN/2014

The overall environmental impact of the fish farm and related mitigating devices included in the offshore H2OCEAN installation has been discussed. The chosen modelling software, AquaModel, couples together a hydrodynamic model with a tracking routine of the particles released by the fish farm. These are then addressed to the water column and the benthos, where they encounter either metabolic transformation or burial. The designed farm is able to release a huge amount of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen, visible at a scale of several dozen of km. The peculiar hydrodynamic features of the site are capable to disperse the plume quickly, before any visible eutrophication effects can take place. The bottom is indeed affected by a large deposition of organic matters, and even if re-suspension episodes can be forecasted, the enrichment can lead to the development of transitory anaerobic conditions. The proposed mitigating devices, based on the biological features of algae and bivalves, appears to be insufficient to a quantitative extraction, due to the intense currents spreading nutrients and particles on very large ocean areas.

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Version: vfinal - Pages: 109

D9.6 Environmental impact assessmentmore info

NATURE: REPORT

DISSEMINATION: PUBLIC

SCHEDULED: OCT/2014

ACHIEVED: FEB/2015

The final conceptual development of the H2OCEAN system has drawn a scenario composed by an array of up to 100 coupled wave and wind energy devices and aquaculture cages, with the support of 2 FPSO ships and a network of submerged power cables, all of them installed over a high energy site located 25 km off the Atlantic coast of Portugal. The complexity of the system, the off-shore operational environment and the depth of deployment of the devices gives rise to several environmental concerns related to the installation techniques and technological solutions implemented to couple the reliability of the system with the sustainable use of the marine resources. This paper draws its data from the published deliverables 9.1, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5 and 9.9 and the restricted deliverable 9.2. It has been found that the significance aspect reported in the matrix in section 8 shows that construction is the highest source of Environmental influence. Operation and maintenance is shown as the second most significant phase in the matrix in section 8. Decommissioning is shown as the lowest impact phase in the matrix.

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Version: vfinal - Pages: 27

D9.7 Alternative uses assessmentmore info

NATURE: REPORT

DISSEMINATION: PUBLIC

SCHEDULED: OCT/2014

ACHIEVED: NOV/2015

The overall production of the H2Ocean platform is initially envisaged as a transportable energy production facility in the form of hydrogen fuel and edible farmed fish products. Alternative uses for an offshore H2OCEAN installation have been discussed and are outlined in this document. However none of the alternative uses or processes are considered for economic or Life Cycle Assessment.

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Version: vfinal - Pages: 27

D9.8 Report on economic viabilitymore info

NATURE: PROTOTYPE

DISSEMINATION: PUBLIC

SCHEDULED: DEC/2014

ACHIEVED: FEB/2015

Within this report the general financial framework has been clarified, including analysis of the potential value of the products to end users. In the first part of the document a survey of possible stakeholders involved in the sea deployment activities are presented. In addition it is described a state of the art of current exploitation models of sea deployment activities, i.e offshore energy production and offshore aquaculture, presenting overall market data that emphasize that there is margin in the market that allows aquaculture production in the next future. At this stage of investigation the net value of the H2Ocean project is with its three components of the total investment costs (incl. replacement) of 12.2 billion € ,the operational costs of 11.4 billion € and the expected benefits of 2.0 billion € which ends with -21.6 billion € negative. The results depends on the total autonomous production of energy, hydrogen, oxygen, water and last but not least aquaculture products. In a set of alternative scenarios of hydrogen as well as oxygen productions taking place completely not fully offshore may lead to more economic feasible results as currently expected.

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Version: vfinal - Pages: 36

D9.9 LCA reportmore info

NATURE: REPORT

DISSEMINATION: PUBLIC

SCHEDULED: DEC/2014

ACHIEVED: DEC/2014

The aim of this report is to assess the environmentally sustainability of the design developed over the course of the project. To perform this environmentally sustainability study, techniques and tools including life cycle analysis have been targeted and used in order to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of the design life from cradle-to-grave, i.e. from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacturing method, distribution, use, repair/maintenance and disposal or recycling. Several assumptions have been made throughout the life cycle analysis of the platforms. However these assumptions may not match reality. The authors of the report suggest performing Monte Carlo analyses using several parameters such as the transport methods and distances for raw materials, energy requirements for manufacturing processes, fuel requirements for installation/deployment of platforms, fish food or materials. For the worst case scenario, based on the IEA values, the relative climate change per kilogram f hydrogen delivered to shore would be reduced by approximately 10.3%. The H2Ocean installation climate change impact would also be reduced by about 9.3%.

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Version: vfinal - Pages: 290

D9.10 Online collaborative Life Cycle Analysis platformmore info

NATURE: OTHER

DISSEMINATION: RESTRICTED

SCHEDULED: MAR/2012

ACHIEVED: MAR/2012

A collaborative tool has been defined and proposed to collect data of all the materials used in the H2OCEAN design which will then be analysed for LCA.

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Version: RESTRICTED - Pages: RESTRICTED

WP9 Disseminationmore info